Tuesday, April 2, 2019

Lone Parenting Social

Lone Parenting kindlyDefinitionThe issue of solitary parenting is sort of go acrossly one that is of remarkable importance and impact in the advance(a) favorable context. It is also one that has different drawpoints, which are important to signalize in the context of this report. While the actual term of lone(prenominal)(prenominal) parenting is a given, it is important to understand the various views which are taken in night club to address this problem. For example, New Labours neighborly policy towards lone parents is generally governed by the attitudes epitomised in the mantras reforming welfare round the move ethic and funding a system that believes in empowerment non dependency (Millar and Rowlingson, 2001, p xv). This quite a obviously conflicts with the view which was held by previous governments, which is say to maintain the view that poverty is relieved by cash handouts (DSS, 1998, p 19). It is also said that the differences between these two viewpoints ep itomises the differing views of old Labour and new Labour (Millar and Rowlingson, 2001, p xv), and also highlights the shift between the welfare state policy to a more capitalist approach to addressing the lone parenting issue.Main IssuesGiven the preaching of the United Kingdoms approach to lone parenting, it might be relevant to contrast these provisions with those of separate jurisdictions. Take, for example, New Zealand which categorises solo parents as(a) A cleaning lady who is the niggle of one or more low-level children and who is living obscure from, and has lost the animation of, or is being inadequately maintained by, her married man(b) An unmarried woman who is the arrive of one or more dependent children(c) A woman whose marriage has been dissolved by divorce and who is the induce of one or more dependent children(e) A woman who is the mother of one or more dependent children and who has lost the regular support of her husband because he is receptive to a sente nce of imprisonment and is-(i) component the sentence in a penal institution or(ii) subject to release conditions or detention conditions (as those terms are defined in section 4(1) of the Parole subroutine 2002) that prevent him undertaking employment(f) A man who is the father of one or more dependent children whose mother is dead or who for both other reason are not being cared for by their mother (Social Security Act 1964 (NZ), s 27B(1)).Arguably, in reflection of the above, it is clear that the New Zealand kindly security system is accommodate more towards caring for a woman who may be a lone parent, as opposed to a father. It might also be observed, however, that social security benefits are only paid to lone parents in New Zealand if the parent is of the minimum age of sixteen (16) years, unless emergency bunch exist (Social Security Act 1964 (NZ), s 27B(2)).Compare this bunk to that crosswise the Tasman Sea in Australia, where the Australian Bureau of Statistics has recorded a three-fold adjoin in lone parenting families in the last thirty (30) years, from 7.1% in 1969 to 21.4% in 1999 (ABS census). However given this increase, it might also be worthwhile to note that lone parenting in Australia remains at lower levels than other English-speaking countries, but still higher than some countries in continental europium (Millar and Rowlingson, 2001, p 61). Further to this, it has generally been the attitude of Australian governments to extend social security benefits to all classes of lone parenting families, irrespective of the cause of the lone parenting situation (Millar and Rowlingson, 2001, p 65). Around 47% of lone mothers were employed in 1999 and around 63% of lone fathers, and approximately 9% of both lone mothers and lone fathers were unemployed (ABS, June 1999). This perhaps symbolises a non-dependency on the welfare system, and that lone parents in Australia generally try to work at least part-time to accessary their welfare income s and provide for their family.Key DilemmasThe key dilemma that has been the recurring ascendent throughout this paper is the fatality to balance income support and welfare with the need for non-dependence on the welfare system. There is a conscientious force back by governments in the above countries to not encourage reliance upon welfare handouts and to push these people to seek active employment, but also recognises the various situations of lone parents who may be unable to work full time for any number of reasons. The United Kingdom obviously recognises this problem in a social context, and took steps to address it though social policy reform. roughly say that this was a more heavy handed approach to the social problem, and this argument may have some merit given the approaches of other countries. New Zealand prescribes certain circumstances where welfare can be paid, and Australia has a more liberal approach to the welfare system, however all of these approaches count to f unction appropriately in their individual contexts.ConclusionIn cipheration of the above points, it is quite clear that lone parents are a significant social problem. However, the more prominent problem is that of how to address the issue. It is quite clear that the United Kingdom has a more recent history of reforming social policy on this issue and limiting the distribution of welfare benefits. Is this the just about appropriate course of action? Some would suggest no, given the run across of other countries. However, regard needs to be had for the statistics approximately one in four of Britains seven million families are headed by a lone parent, and less than four in ten lone parents in Britain work full time (which is a piecemeal 16 hours a workweek statistically) (Millar and Rowlingson, 2001, p 11). This only serves to fuel the debate further, and one needs to consider the legislative and policy-based approach of the United Kingdom in context beforehand judgement on this issue can be passed.BibliographyBooksMillar, J., and Rowlingson, K. (eds), Lone Parents, avocation and Social Policy (2001), Bristol The Policy PressJournal ArticlesHughes, J., Lone Parents and Social Security (2005) 36 Victoria University Wellington Law Review 1Soley, C., Lessons of the Lone Parenting Battle (1997) 126 New Statesman.LegislationSocial Security Act 1965 (NZ)Social Security Act 1991 (AU, Cth)Other SourcesAustralian Bureau of Statistics, June 1999Australian Bureau of Statistics, census 1969 and 1999DPI, census 1999

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