Sunday, March 31, 2019
How Stalin Became The Leader Of The Soviet History Essay
How Stalin Became The Leader Of The Soviet History EssayThe mapping of this paper is to break d avouch how Stalin became the bushel loss leader of the Soviet Union while he was regarded to the Politburo as a minor player who had no chance of defeating Trotsky. Was Stalin g eachplacenment only(prenominal)y sinewy from the beginning of this cause campaign? Did Trotsky even want to become the Soviet Unions sole leader? To what extent were Stalins opponents weak during the supply struggle? Were on that catamenia both external parts that led to Stalins rise for spring? Was there any luck involved in this event? These interrogations would be examined or answered in the investigation.This essay focuses on the time period from 1924- the start of Soviet Russias policy-making creator struggle- to 1929, Stalins formal role of totalitarian dictatorship. This paper draws on a verity of primary microbe diary material, newspaper articles, secondary stem books and periodical art icles which serve as some historiography for analyzing the critical issue of how tricky and cunning was Stalin in this former struggle. This has been a subject of tilt over many historians since Lenins oddment and the debate is examined in this paper.This paper concludes that a compounding of Stalins policy-making skills and his privateity ca apply Trotsky to be eliminated during the indicator struggle while Stalin became the sole leader. Due to the complexity of events, we bunsnot nail d admit whether this factor could be played taboo by itself however, to a greater extent or less renowned historians sh atomic number 18 the akin views with the factor of Stalins semi policy-making skills being the most important cause that led to his uprising.IntroductionIn 1924, a massive political struggle occurred in the Soviet Union. Vladimir Lenin, leader of the former Bolshevik Party and the communist Party of the Soviet Union, died on the 21st of January in 1924.1Lenin had he ld the party together since 1917 and had been the central person to determine its policies.2Without providing a clear successor, he left the party in bedlam and the in-fighting and division could jeopardize or pull apart the Communist Party. Lenins devastation did not occur at the right time and there were issues that the Soviet Union faced regarding to the route towards socialism, leadershiphip in the party and the problems of a growing bureaucratism.3 there were many conflicts between the key party leaders personalities and this led to a struggle over power that lasted for the next fin years. This has led some historians to call it a struggle over power, preferably than for power since the Politburo members priority was keeping each other out of power rather than gaining power for themselves.4Joseph Stalin was regarded as a minor player in the beginning and Trotsky was famously named as the chief cont residueer of this massive power struggle. Trotsky was the most prominent an d power Bolshevik leader since he was the commander of the Red Army from 29 August 1919 to 15 January 1925. However in 1929, Joseph Stalin emerged as the sole leader of the power struggle.Although historians readily tell apart Stalin as the sole leader in 1929, the question re importants on how was Stalin qualified to become the Soviet Unions sole leader while he was regarded as a minor player who had no chance in defeating Trotsky. devil main interpretations dominated the debate over the relationship between Stalins political skills and the weaknesses of his opponents. Many historians hold the conviction that Stalins political skills were too pitiless as Stalin himself admitted, Yes, I am rough, rough on those who roughly and faithlessly afflict to destroy the Communist Party.5On the other hand, different historians seek to divorce Stalins personality from Trotskys weaknesses. Those historians begd that Trotsky had no talent or tactic and had no excogitation to fight in t he battle for power in the offset printing place.The purpose of this essay is to evaluate the factors that led to Stalins rise to power over Trotsky. though Stalin had a ruthless character, he was named Russias third most popular historic figure in a nationwide poll despite the deficit and purges that marked his triumph.6The essay examines Stalins political skills and personality, and the weakness of his opponents. Based on the settlement of this examination, it is possible to conclude that although Trotsky was the most powerful candidate, the nature of Stalins personality and actions were perceptibly stronger than Trotsky. Stalin had much desire and motivation to get to the top. Therefore, this essay will argue that the most significant reason for Stalins uprising is his political abilities and personality. This investigation is sacred to examine because it may become a reference to future power struggles that are similar to Stalins rise of power. After examining this topic, one can acknowledge that successful candidates must have a strong personality on with potential abilities that reaches the high expectations of this criterion.1. Stalins policy-making Skills and PersonalityThe most dominant factor that led to Joseph Stalins success as the sole leader was his political skills and personality. This shoot of view is shared by many historians and they tend to dissociate Leon Trotsky from the question of having no talent. Historian J.N. Westwood argued that Stalin was immensely cunning and wrote that Stalin stood back and watched his rivals dig their own graves, resemblingning his actions to a dog that steals a bone when two others are fighting over it.7This source is valu fitted because it was exactly what happened during the power struggle as Stalin s expressive styleed from the left wing to the right wing to eliminate all his opponents by the end of 1929. A former Politburo member, Nikolai Bukharin, as rise as agreed that Stalin was ruthless an d in his book, he wrote, Stalin is a Genghis Khan, an unscrupulous intriguer, who sacrifices everything else to the preservation of power He changes his theories according to whom he needs to get rid of next.8Hence, we can responsibility that Stalins political personality played a significant role in the history of the power struggle. Bukharin, a former contender in the political battle can give us important historical answers however there are limitations. Since he was Stalins opponent, he would probably have his own views and therefore one can conclude that his historical information may be biased. There also seemed to be a minority opinion. Author, Theodore VonLaue disagrees with the study views and writes, What he (Stalin) lacked were the very qualities in which the former exiles excelled.9One can confute Theodores point with major endorse from trusted historians therefore it seems that Stalins political skills were the most important reason for the downfall of Trotsky.One o f the most obvious advantages Stalin had over Trotsky was his immense positions of power gained with his political skills and personality. As, historian Chris Ward writes, Stalins personality cannot be divorced from the world in which he functioned.10Stalin was appointed head of the Workers and Peasants Inspectorate, in command of the Orgburo and he was a newly elected member of the Politburo which became the main organ of power.11In March 1919, Yakov Sverdlov died of Spanish flu and Lenin was left with a few top administrators to replace Sverdlov. At that time, Stalin had gained Lenins trust (since Stalin appeared very incorruptible to Lenin) and Lenin clearly did not want all the powers in one detainment since Trotsky was already the Red Armys commander. Therefore, he appointed Stalin over Trotsky as the partys first General depository whom was in charge of the general organization.12Other Bolsheviks adage these jobs as a part of the dull routine of party bureaucracy and paid l ittle attention to him which gave Stalin an enormous advantage as the gray-haired Blur in the battle for power.13Having the position of a General Secretary was a crucial factor for the rise of Stalin. Stalin had control over every step of the hierarchy as he controlled the first step of ladder. He had the privilege to appoint new members who owed him their unwaveringty. Therefore having the title, General Secretary was useful to place supporters in key positions to win and deliver votes that outmaneuvered political opponents. Stalin could also set the agenda for the Politburo meetings so he controlled what the politburo talked active. Furthermore, he controlled the leaflets which meant that he had power over the enemies political digit. Stalin was basically in control of the whole Political Machine in USSR after Lenins death.After Lenins death, Stalin rose in power because of his cunning manipulative personality and it was shown in the event of Lenins Funeral. One can clearly t ell how significant and effective Stalins skills because he wanted to award himself as the legitimate successor and destroy Trotskys positive simulacrum as Lenins chosen successor. Lenin died on the 21st of January 1924 and his funeral was held six days after his death in the Red Square.14The cult of Leninism had just begun after the Red fright and Stalin gave it momentum at Lenins Funeral by acting as a pallbearer and giving the oration with an oath of loyalty made to Lenins legacy.15Stalin had contacted Trotsky, whom was resting in southeast Russia because of his illness. Having a cunning personality, Stalin convinced Trotsky to not attend Lenins Funeral because he would not been able to arrive on time and by accepting Stalins proposal, Trotskys image was heavily injured. At the end of the Funeral, Stalin had a very successful outgrowth because the general public had the impression that he was designated to become Lenins successor since it looked like he was victorious on t he Mantle of Leninism.16This event showed how Trotskys weaknesses were exploited by Stalin and used to gain better credibility. This event provides an overwhelming amount of evidence of how Stalin applied his clever save sinister tactics and it reflected on Stalins consecutive personality.From 1922 onwards, Stalins true personality was gradually more transparent. Stalin posed as a moderate in the Communist Party spectrum between Trotsky on the leave wing and Bukharin on the Right wing in the early 1920s.17He had avoided making definite policy decisions until 1928. This allowed him to stay away from political disputes indoors the party and he would be able to gain the support from the Liberals and the Conservatives. Stalin used policy disagreements to outflank and isolate his opponents and successfully presented the views of his opponents as anti-communist or anti-Leninist. This highlighted how Stalin successfully manipulated Lenins Ban on Factions by using his cunning strategies into his advantages. Robert Conquest tell that, In six years Stalin outmanoeuvred a series of opponents first in partnership with the rest of his colleagues, he opposed and demoted Trotsky. Then in alliance with the Bukharin-Rykov Right he defeated the Zinoviev-Kamenev Left bloc and finally he and his own following attacked their hitherto allies, the Rightists.18Robert Conquest, a well know British historian, retold a section of the timeline when Stalin is rising to power. In ones opinion, Stalin was ruthless and did whatever it took to be the sole leader of Soviet Russia and historian R. Conquest along with Bukharin acknowledges Stalin switching attitudes with whoever he wanted to eliminate and evidently his cruel personality was exposed.However, Stalins schema convinced people he was dull and mediocre, hence he was cognise as the Grey Blur which left no trace.19This valuable bring up demonstrated Stalins strategic skills which gave him immunity to criticism because his per sonality was not known clearly. Sukhanov, the diarist of the revolution noted, Stalin however, during the course of his modest activity in the executive director Committee, gave me the impression-and I was not alone in this view, of a grey denigrate which flickered obscurely and left no trace. There is really nothing more to be said about him.20By examining Sukhanovs diary, we can state that Stalins political tactics gave him an opportunity to blend in the background. In another example, Deutscher had the same point of view in his review, He carefully followed the course of debate to see what way the wind was blowing and invariably voted with the volume, unless he had assured his majority beforehand.21Stalins personality had turned the political battle into a nightmare and his perceived objective was simply to be the last surviving person in the Politburo by eliminating other players first using his gifts from Lenin.Stalin used his external lot created by Lenin, very wisely. By analyzing how he incorporated them to his advantage, we would be able to observe his political mindset. Policies like the Ban on Factions, the nomenklatura placement and Lenins memorandum were clear examples. The ban on factions, created by Lenin in 1921, called for unity and an end to splits and factionalism as Lenin stated, All members of the Russian Communist Party who are in the slightest degree suspicious or unreliable should be got rid of and this was a massive advantage that enabled Stalin to get rid of his rivals easily after Lenins death.22The nomenklatura system was established from 1923 onwards and decision making only applied to a few hands in the Communist Party whom most of the voters were loyal Stalinists. The Lenins enrolment was a recruitment campaign that started in 1923 and it increased the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 340,000 members to about 600,000 members by 1925. Although Lenin Enrolment was supposedly for party purposes, General Secretary, Sta lin, controlled or vetoed the party list for his own personal gain by placing his supporters in places of political power. These external circumstances were crushing weapons in the hands of Stalin whom could basically control the votes at party congresses.There had also been evidence of his ruthlessness in the 1922 Georgian Affair. Stalin was born in 1878 to a peasant Georgian cobbler family as Iosif Dzhugashvili and changed his name to Stalin as Man of Steel later on.23He grew up was a barbaric and lawless place and was frequently involved in brawls with other children.24Stalin lived a peasant life and he was uneducated but had a queer personality. Stalin hated Georgia and his harshness in imposing the Bolshevik rule on his native country, Georgia, shocked many people including Lenin.25Lenin wrote in his testament, Stalin is too rude.26Stalins daughter, Svetlana Alliluyeva had the same point of view and in an interview she said, He was a very simple man. Very rude. Very cruel. S vetlana also said, He broke my life. I want to explain to you. He broke my life twice.27Sources from Svetlana are very valuable and reliable since it was Stalins daughter and it provides a first persons point of view on Stalins real personality. In Svetlanas memoir, Twenty letters to a friend she described her fathers personality and she wrote, At this point, and this was where his cruel, implacable nature showed itself, the aside ceased to exist for him. Years of friendship and fighting side by side in a common cause might as well never have been.28Surprisingly, Stalins daughter had a very bad image of her father as she wrote, In his cold-blooded way he cared about only one thing. How is X conducting himself now? Does he admit his mistakes? This source informs us Stalins true personality. He himself did not admit to any wrongdoings and only blames it on his opponents. In ones opinion, he had a very cruel but strong personality and Svetlana has the same view, He is gone, but his s hadow remedy stands over all of us. It still dictates to us and we, very often, obey.29Stalins personality was in the main caused by his background and he had learned life the hard way through an independent life. Stalin was not considered an intellectual like Trotsky. However, he had the power to lead equals whom Trotsky lacked through manipulation and cunning. Stalins had no fear of behaving immorally or of getting this hands dirty and this contributed largely to his success in taking over the party by 1929.